Neural plasticity of adult haematopoietic stem cells. Haematopoietic stem cells from adult bone marrow could give rise oligodendrocytes, astrocytes, neurones or when grafted in neonatal brains and in adult brains after demiliniating damage. After long-term analysis only donor neural stem cells were observed. This donor NSC, localized at the subventricular region (SVZ) could be expanded “in vitro” as neurospheres and differentiate in neural lineages under specific cell culture conditions. The capacity to reproduce this differentiation “in vitro” is now underway. Using quantitative RT-PCR and TaqMan probes we have analyzed the expression of Sox2, Nestina o Musashi, previously associated to neural differentiation.Up to now only few markers have been described able to identify neural stem cells. New markers would be used for the correct identification of neural progenitor’s cells either at the brain as well as other niche reservoirs. Furthermore, new hypothesis on carcinogenesis suggest the existence of cancer stem cells associated with the tumour development of glioblastomas. To these purposes we have generated monoclonal antibodies against NSC which identify already defined specific neurogenic brain areas. The selection of these cellular populations will be used to analyze the trancriptional profiles of these cells before and after differentiation and at the neural niche as well as in other no-neural related localizations. The morphological and molecular changes will be then analyzed and correlated with genes expression by DNA arrays